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The Importance of Timing for Spaying and Neutering Small Dogs


Spaying and neutering are common procedures recommended by veterinarians to control the pet population and prevent certain health issues. However, the timing of these procedures can significantly impact the long-term health and well-being of your small dog. Recent peer-reviewed research provides valuable insights into why delaying spaying and neutering until small breeds are fully grown can be beneficial.

Health Benefits of Delaying Spaying and Neutering

  1. Joint Health

  • Growth Plates: Early neutering can disrupt the closure of growth plates, leading to uneven bone growth and joint issues such as hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) tears. A study on Golden Retrievers showed that early neutering doubled the risk of hip dysplasia in males and significantly increased the risk of CCL tears in both sexes. While toy breeds mature faster, waiting until they are fully grown ensures proper skeletal development and reduces the risk of joint disorders​ (PLOS)​​ (PLOS)​.

  1. Cancer Risks

  • Hormonal Influence: Hormonal changes due to early spaying or neutering can affect the incidence of certain cancers. For instance, early neutering has been associated with an increased risk of hemangiosarcoma (HSA) and mast cell tumors (MCT) in females. Delaying the procedure can help balance the hormonal influences that contribute to these cancers​ (Cambridge)​​ (AKC Canine Health Foundation)​.

  • Mammary Tumors: While early spaying reduces the risk of mammary tumors, this benefit must be weighed against the increased risk of other cancers and joint issues​ (PLOS)​.

  1. Developmental Benefits

  • Hormonal Balance: Hormones play a crucial role in the development of bones, muscles, and other tissues. Delaying spaying and neutering allows these hormones to aid in proper development, which is particularly important for small breeds. Proper hormonal balance contributes to better physical development and reduces the risk of other long-term health issues​ (Frontiers)​​ (PLOS)​.

Endocrine and Metabolic Health

  1. Cushing's Disease

  • Adrenal Gland Function: Early spaying and neutering can affect the adrenal glands, potentially leading to conditions like Cushing's disease. This condition is characterized by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause significant health problems such as muscle atrophy, skin issues, and increased thirst and urination​ (Veterinary Practice)​​ (Petcube web-site)​.

  • Prevention: By allowing the dog's endocrine system to mature fully before neutering, the risk of such disorders may be reduced, supporting overall metabolic health.

  1. Diabetes

  • Insulin Regulation: Hormonal imbalances caused by early spaying or neutering can also impact insulin regulation, potentially increasing the risk of diabetes. Ensuring that the dog's endocrine system is fully developed can help maintain proper insulin levels and reduce this risk​ (Veterinary Practice)​.

Behavioral Considerations

Some pet owners worry about behavioral issues such as marking if they delay neutering. Here are some strategies to manage this behavior:

  • Training: Proper training and behavior modification can effectively address marking behavior, regardless of whether the dog is neutered.

  • Management Strategies: Consistent routines, supervision, and the use of products like belly bands can help manage marking behavior.


Delaying spaying and neutering until small breeds are fully grown can lead to better health outcomes by allowing for proper physical and hormonal development, reducing the risk of joint disorders, certain cancers, and metabolic diseases like Cushing's and diabetes. It is essential to consult with a veterinarian to determine the optimal timing for these procedures based on your dog's individual health and breed-specific factors.

Further Reading and References

For more detailed information and research findings, consider reviewing the following sources:

By staying informed and considering both health and behavioral aspects, you can make the best decision for your small dog's health and well-being while managing marking behavior effectively.


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